Working on offshore wind farms

Offshore Wind Farms

For more than a century the world has explored the seas and oceans to discover and subsequently produce oil and gas fields. Due to the energy transition to renewable energy sources, those same locations are once again in focus, but instead of building platforms that serve the oil and gas industry, wind turbines and wind parks are being build.

Obviously experiences gained with offshore oil & gas construction  are now used to construct these wind turbines and wind parks. Thus Allnamics’ knowledge and experience with offshore  foundation design, construction  and  testing is a valuable commodity, especially when it comes to the installation of monopoles, a special focus area of Allnamics.

For more information on the possibilities Allnamics Offshore Services can offer for your project, please contact Joost Bakker at

Allnamics PDA with 3 coupled PDR's for 12 channel PDA monitoring on monopiles for Offshore Wind Farm at Urk
PDA Offshore piles


Allnamics has been involved in many projects where monopiles formed the foundation of the offshore structures. Given our knowledge and experience with this type of foundations, Allnamics has become a sought-after consultant for the installation of large diameter monopiles (such as the 22-m (72-ft) diameter open pipe piles that were used for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Project).  Many of these monopiles are installed with vibratory hammers and Allnamics’ pile driving prediction software provides a unique tool to simulate this.

Want to know more? Contact Joost Bakker at

Offshore Vibratory Driving Prediction

Nowadays, the usage of offshore vibratory hammers is no longer limited to just positioning and setting up a pile. Whereas until recently an impact hammer was used to actually drive the pile, the vibratory hammer is used more often to perform this task, even to drive the pile until the final penetration depth.

Similar to pile driving predictions for impact hammers, the pile installation by means of a vibratory hammer can be simulated. With comparable results to PDP, one can study the efficiency of a vibratory hammer, the maximum reachable penetration (or refusal) depth, the maximum stresses, and the contribution of these stresses to pile material fatigue. Using the AllWave-VDP software, the algorithms of which reflect a large database of predicted and measured results leads to reliable predictions.

Vibratory Driving Predictions will result in efficient pile design, including an efficient pile driving process with the appropriate vibratory hammer, without unexpected troubles.

For more information about our offshore vibratory driving predictions please contact Nicolas Moscoso at or Peter Middendorp at

Fatigue analysis, Prediction and Monitoring

During its lifetime an offshore foundation pile is continuously loaded by dynamic forces as a result of the wind, current and wave action. Fatigue is therefore an important design factor.

During pile driving the stress variations lead to fatigue as well and therefore this aspect should be analyzed. .

Allnamics can perform this fatigue analysis in two ways:

  1. By predicting the stress levels during installation as part of the pile driving prediction for impact hammer (PDP) or vibratory hammer (VDP) and its effect on the fatigue of the (mono)pile
  2. By measuring the real stress levels and their changes during pile driving, by performing PDA or VDA during installation. For measurements at certain spots additional spot monitoring can be applied as well, e.g. at locations with a diameter or wall thickness change, connection crowns, welds, or flange.

Want to know more? Contact Joost Bakker at

Offshore Pile Driving Prediction

Pile Driving Predictions are performed to predict the pile, soil, and pile driving hammer behavior during the installation of foundation piles, including large diameter monopiles. By doing this during the engineering stage, problems and augmented costs during installation can be avoided. The pile driving hammer must be able to deliver enough energy to install the pile to its designed penetration depth. At the same time pile stresses during installation should be kept within acceptable limits. For the dynamically loaded foundations, such as monopiles of wind turbines, fatigue damage is to be considered as well and therefore the pile stresses during installation should be limited.

By making Pile Driving Predictions using the AllWave-PDP software, answers to these types of questions can be generated by modeling the pile, soil and hammer and simulating the installation process. And these predictions can be made for offshore piles in the same way as they are done for onshore applications.

For more information about our offshore pile driving predictions please contact Joost Bakker at

PDA Offshore
PDA Westermeerwind

Offshore Pile Driving Analysis (PDA) or Pile Driving Monitoring (PDM)

Whenever a pile is driven it is important to know that the installation went well and this obviously also applies to offshore constructions. To ensure that this is the case measurements can be taken during pile driving (Pile Driving Analysis or Monitoring: PDA) and these measurements can then be further analyzed for additional information. This can be done whether the pile is driven with an impact hammer or a vibratory hammer.
After driving, the bearing capacity will increase with time (due to set-up). By monitoring during a redrive, the static pile/soil behavior and accordingly its static bearing capacity can be obtained by analyzing the measurements using the signal matching process with the AllWave-DLT software (a so-called High Strain Dynamic Test, commonly referred to as a Dynamic Load Test).

Want to know more? Contact Joost Bakker at

Offshore Vibratory Driving Analysis (VDA) or Vibratory Driving Monitoring (VDM)

When piles are installed by means of a vibratory hammer, instead of an impact hammer, VDM and VDA can still be performed.
During Vibratory Driving Analysis all information during installation is monitored, including performance and behavior of pile, soil and vibratory hammer. Monitoring of pile stresses (and their contribution to fatigue of the pile material), pile penetration (both in absolute terms and as a function of time), and hammer frequency and efficiency are just a few of the parameters to ensure quality control for piles installed with a vibratory hammer.

Want to know more? Contact Rob van Dorp at

VDA Offshore

Offshore Dynamic Load Testing (DLT)

After initial developments in the 1960s, Dynamic Load Testing evolved into a mature testing method during the 1970s and 1980s. At that time offshore structures were built to explore and produce oil and gas at locations with, until then, unknown soil conditions. Since static load tests could not be performed underwater an alternative had to be developed, and Dynamic Load Testing  has become a widely accepted  pile testing methods

Allnamics founders are pioneers in this field and played an essential role in the development of various monitoring systems from the original FPDS (Foundation Pile Diagnostic System) to the current Allnamics’ PDR.
The main objective of performing a Dynamic Load Test is to obtain information about the pile behavior during (static) loading. Measurements during a redrive, i.e. after set-up of the soil, are then used to assess the static behavior of the foundation pile, using the signal matching process with the AllWave-DLT software.

Want to know more? Contact Joost Bakker at

The Wireless PDR mounted in offshore monopiles for PDA monitoring

Offshore Statnamic Loading Tests

For the high capacity of offshore foundation piles and monopiles, Allnamics make use of the StatNamic pile testing method. StatNamic is a Method of Rapid Load Testing. With this pile load test method, loads up to 65 MN, and in the near future up to 150 MN, are possible.

Do you want to know more about StatNamic or StatRapid pile load testing or Rapid Load Testing in general? Contact Peter Middendorp at

Offshore Monitoring Equipment

The offshore monitoring methods have been developed around the in-house developed PDR (with an external Wi-Fi antenna and internal data storage). Depending on the type of sensors, the PDR can act as a full PDA system (Pile Driving Analysis, with sensors to monitor strain and accelerations, under or above water level), a VDA system for Vibratory Driving Analysis, or a system for pile load testing: static, dynamic and Rapid Load Testing.

Want to know more? Contact Joost Bakker at

Set for Dynamic Load Testing: rugged case including sensors, PDR and mounting materials. No cable between PDR and monioring computer is required, as the system is communicating wireless via WiFi.

Under Water Monitoring

When under water hammers are used to install the offshore piles, the monitoring sensors need to be waterproof as well. Allnamics developed special sensors that are certified to be waterproof at depths up to 500 m.

Want to know more? Contact Joost Bakker at

Offshore Pile Instrumentation

Many parameters can be monitored during and after installation of offshore foundation piles.  Allnamics can provide instrumentation to address special project requirements. For more information about the possibilities that Allnamics Offshore Services can offer for your project?

Contact Joost Bakker at

Read more about Allnamics Offshore Services

More projects, papers and research results are described on this website of Allnamics. If you want to read more, check out the links below, or see more projects in news or under projects:

Or contact Joost Bakker at

Strain gauge directly glued on the steel.


Allnamics has made many contributions to international conferences. These publications are available via the Allnamics database. A selection from that:

StatRapid used on instrumented piles for optimization of design parameters for high rise building in The Hague

Author(s): van Dorp, van Delft, IJnsen Year: 2019 Language: English Where: Proc., Pfahl-Symposium 2019, Braunsweigh 107 ABSTRACT: For a new high rise development in the center of The Hague (NL) heavily loaded piles have to be installed through the existing basement floor of an underground car park. The project and its environmental boundaries required for […]

Determination of Discontinuities in Piles by Integrity and Signal Matching Techniques

Author(s): Middendorp, P., Reiding, F.J. Year: 1988 Language: English Where: 3rd International Conference on The Application of Stress Wave Theory on Piles, Ottawa, Canada INTRODUCTION: The quality of the signals, obtained by sonic integrity testing of piles has been improved considerably with the introduction of digital signal processing. This allows the introduction of a new […]

Pile Integrity Testing in the Netherlands

Author(s): Middendorp, P., Schellingerhout, J. Year: 2006 Language: English Where: 10th International Conference on Piling and Deep Foundations, DFI , Amsterdam INTRODUCTION: Pile foundations are widely applied in the Netherlands because of the soft soil conditions. One of the popular pile types are cast-in-situ piles, which have to be integrity tested to get accepted. Integrity […]

Prediction and Monitoring of Installation of Offshore Foundation Monopiles for Windfarms

Author(s): Van Dorp, Moscoso, Bielefeld, Verbeek Year: 2019 Language: English Where: Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, Texas, USA INTRODUCTION: Upon recently, most offshore foundations were based on a number of driven piles that were installed with an impact hammer. With the increase in offshore windfarms two major developments have occurred: the shift from jackets to […]

The influence of stress wave phenomena during Statnamic Load Testing

Author(s): Middendorp, Bielefeld Year: 1995 Language: English Where: First International Statnamic Seminar, Vancouver INTRODUCTION: The Unloading Point Method (UPM) has become a standard tool for the analysis of Statnamic (STN) load testing signals. The method is based on the assumption that the pile can be modeled as a concentrated mass and springs. Modeling is only […]

Pile Foundation design philosophy and testing program for a new generation diesel fuel plant

Author(s): Romano, M.C., Middendorp, P, Doornbos, S. Year: 2010 Language: English Where: DFI Conference, Geotechnical Challenges in Urban Regeneration, London, UK INTRODUCTION: The company NESTE-OIL is building a plant for the production of a new generation NExBTL diesel fuel in the Port of Rotterdam The Netherlands. The fuel is produced from renewable vegetable oil as […]

Keynote lecture: Statnamic the engineering of art.

Author(s): Middendorp. P. Year: 2000 Language: English Where: International Conference on Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, Sao Paulo, Brazil CONCLUSIONS: The success of Statnamic stems for a significant part from the concepts and ideas generated by “artist-engineers” and “engineer-artists”. According to Brandl (2000): an excellent engineer requires not only a firm theoretical knowledge […]

Rapid load field tests interpreted with the new Guideline

Author(s): Hölscher, Brassinga, van Tol, Middendorp, Revoort Year: 2009 Language: English Where: 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, Egypt CONCLUSIONS: Two instrumented driven piles are tested by both SLT and RLT. The measurements lead to the following conclusions: SLTs show a bearing capacity of 1120 kN respectively 1150 kN. The RLT’s […]

Rapid Load Testing: an updated technique towards pile testing efficiency

Rapid Load Testing: una eficiente técnica para pruebas de carga en pilotes Author’s: Moscoso N.; Bielefeld M.W.; Fernández Tadeo C. Year: 2018 Language: Spanish Where: 16 CNG – 6JLEG 2018, Azores, Portugal INTRODUCTION: The article describes the rapid load test history from its invention 40 years ago until nowadays. As the method was being developed […]

International Prediction Event Behaviour of Cfa, Driven and Bored Piles in Residual Soil Experimental Site

Author(s): Viana da Fonseca, Santos, A. Year: 2008 Language: English Where: ISC’2,September 2008 / 240×170 / 688 pages ISBN: 978-972-752-104-3 ISBN: 978-98995625-1. INTRODUCTION: In the north-western region of Portugal, residual soils from granite are dominant. The thickness of these regional saprolitic soils may some times exhibit more than 20m, with more common values of 5 […]

The advantages and disadvantages of Dynamic Load testing and Statnamic Load Testing

Author(s): Middendorp, Ginneken, Foeken Year: 2000 Language: English Where: Sixth International Conference on the Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, Sao Paulo ABSTRACT: Pile capacity testing by high strain dynamic loading methods is widely applied because of its economy and efficiency compared to static load testing methods (SLT). Frequently applied dynamic loading methods are […]

Soil investigation and negative skin friction

Grondonderzoek en negatieve kleef Author(s): A.P. Offenberg Year: 1996 Language: Dutch Where: Symposium Geo- en Funderingstechniek INTRODUCTION: Negative skin friction now a well-known and established concept in soil mechanics, about which no news can be reported. The “new” geotechnical standards do not give rise to shocking changes. This contribution, therefore, has nothing new to offer […]

What happens in the soil during pile driving?

Wat gebeurt er in de grond tijdens het heien? Auteur(s): ir. G. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG Year: 1956 Language: Dutch Where: De ingenieur 68e jaargang no. 25 SUMMARY: A) A graphical method is used to determine stress and velocity in rods under dynamic loading conditions. Application to a sample of dry sand gives regions of […]

Thirty years of experience with the wave equation solution based on the method of characteristics

Author(s): Middendorp. P. Year: 2004 Language: English Where: Seventh International Conference on the Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, Kuala Lumpur INTRODUCTION: The method of characteristics, as an accurate solution of the wave equation, has a long history of the application. This paper will describe a brief history of the method and the author’s […]

StatRapid Load Tests in the 270th edition of inGEOpres

Auteur(s): Moscoso del Prado Mazza; Fernández Tadeo; Bielefeld Year: 2018 Language: Español Where: inGEOpres – oct 2018 nr 270 INTRODUCTION: Pile loading tests are carried out to verify that the piles have the capacity required to support the structure to be built. Applying a load on a pile instrumented with sensors, these tests are able […]

Re-evaluation of the method to determine pile damage using the Beta Method

Auteur(s): G. Verbeek; G. Goble Year: 2012 Language: English Where: Proceedings of the IS-Kanazawa, Japan INTRODUCTION: In 1979, a paper was published by Rausche and Goble describing a method to determine damage in driven piles using the Beta Method. Over the years this method has become the standard for pile damage assessment in many parts […]

Pile foundation testing of a hurricane resistant jetty

Auteur(s): Middendorp, P., Plooy, P.J., Kruit,D.B Year: 2008 Language: English Where: 8th Int. Conf. Application of stress-wave theory to piles, Lisbon INTRODUCTION: To prevent pile driving problems during the construction of a jetty at Grenada a proof testing approach was applied whereby test pile driving was performed at several places where the jetty was to […]

At the cutting edge of pile driving and pile testing

Autor(s): Middendorp, P., Verbeek, G. Year: 2012 Language: English Where: 9th International Conference on Testing and Design Methods for Deep Foundations; Kanasawa, Japan INTRODUCTION: The worldwide challenges to achieve a greener planet, better communications, cost-effective and fast means of transportation, and the protection against natural hazards (such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and hurricanes) continually force […]

Modeling and Observations of Pile Installation using Vibro Hammers in Fraser River Delta soils

Autor(s): David Tara, Peter Middendorp, Gerald Verbeek Year: 2014 Language: English Where: Modeling and Observations of Pile Installation using Vibro Hammers in Fraser River Delta soils INTRODUCTION: There has been significant recent interest in the use of vibratory drivers/vibro hammers to install piles in offshore and nearshore applications around the globe. Recent experience using vibratory […]

Pile Driving Analysis & Vibro Hammers A Viable Combination

Autor(s): Verbeek G.;Middendorp P.; van Dorp R.; Tara D. Year: 2013 Language: English Where: Presentation SuperPile 2013, Minneapolis, MN INTRODUCTION: Presentation held at the SuperPile 2013 conference in Minneapolis, MN. DOWNLOAD: You can download the entire article here, after entering your name and e-mail address. .

Installation of Monopiles by Vibrohammers for the Riffgat Project

Autor(s): L. de Neef, P. Middendorp, J. Bakker Year: 2013 Language: English Where: Pfahlsymposium, Braunschweig INTRODUCTION: The successful installation of 22m diameter steel tubular piles/caissons by vibratory hammers in China in 2011 resulted in a strong interest in the application of vibratory hammers to install steel tubular monopiles for wind turbines, especially offshore. The first […]

Skin friction models for sand from static and dynamic laboratory load tests

Auteur(s): Middendorp,P., van Brederode, P.J. Year: 1984 Language: English Where: 2nd International Conference on Stress Waves, The Hague, Netherlands Proceedings INTRODUCTION: The behavior of a foundation pile during impact loading can be measured or it may be simulated by computerized calculation. Although today measuring techniques and computer algorithms have reached high levels of accuracy, the […]

A digital approach to sonic pile testing

Auteur(s): Reiding, F.J., Middendorp, P., P.J. van Brederode Year: 1984 Language: English Where: 2nd International Conference on Stress Waves, The Hague, Netherlands Proceedings INTRODUCTION: Paper regarding digitizing of SIT measurements. DOWNLOAD: You can download the entire article here, after entering your name and e-mail address .

Hydroblok and Improved Pile Driving Analysis

Auteur(s): Voitus van Hamme, G.E.J.S.L. Jansz, J.W. Bomer H.,and Arentsen, D. Year: 1974 Language: English Where: De Ingenieur Vol. 86, no. 8 INTRODUCTION: In a previous article, a description of a number of features of the Hydroblock has been given, in particular, the properties of the Hydroblock have been compared with those of other types […]

Rapid Pile Load Testing in Barcelona

Pruebas de carga rápida de pilotes en Barcelona Auteur(s): Moscoso del Prado Mazza; Fernández Tadeo; Bielefeld; Year: 2018 Language: Español Where: Obras Urbanas sept – oct 2018 nr 71 INTRODUCTION: The first Rapid Load Tests in Spain were conducted in 2017 in the port of Barcelona. This modern method, standardized worldwide, is a step forward […]

Recent advances of rapid load testing in Asia and Europe

Autor(s): Chew, S.H.; Middendorp, P.; Bakker J.; Chua G. Year: 2015 Language: English Where: Proceedings XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Edinburgh, Scotland INTRODUCTION: Rapid Load Testing (RLT), by which a quasi-static load is applied to a foundation pile, is used increasingly as an alternative to static load testing (SLT) and high […]

On the operation of a diesel hammer

Autor(s): Voitus van Hamme Year: 1981 Language: Dutch Where: Technical University Delft, The Netherlands INTRODUCTION: This Dutch thesis with an English summary describes the operation of the diesel hammer and the theory of pile driving. Field measurements are also shown and analyzed. The process of the diesel block is divided into 8 phases: 1. fall […]

From very small to gigantic piles

Autor(s): Middendorp P.; van Dorp R.F. Year: 2012 Language: Dutch Where: Geotechniek Funderingsdag 2012 special INTRODUCTION: The theme Foundations in Motion has been the practice for Allnamics in the short period of its existence since 2010, both literally and figuratively, for several national and international projects in the field of Mini- to Giga-piles. It is […]

Renovation of pile foundations for homes in Zaanstad

Om en om renovatie van paalwoningen voor woningen in Zaanstad Autor(s): Ad Offenberg Year: 1981 Language: Dutch Where: Polytechnisch tijdschrift, editie bouwkunde, wegen en waterbouw INTRODUCTION: In this (dutch) article a description is given of the way how a wooden pile foundation was completed with concrete piles at a renovation in Zaandam the Netherlands. Because […]


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