STATRAPIDthe method of Rapid Pile Load Testing

Pile Load Testing

Allnamics is all about pile testing. With a wide range of testing techniques, Allnamics is capable to test any pile for its integrity, bearing capacity and stiffness. Being one of the pioneers in this field of pile testing, Allnamics founders, have contributed major knowledge to pile testing nowadays. Either Static, Dynamic or Rapid Load Testing. The latter is one of the innovations of Allnamics founders for pile testing. In 1990 the Statnamic method has been developed. Later followed by an alternative Rapid Load Testing: the StatRapid Load Test. That brings the total of testing techniques for bearing capacity to:
1. Static Load Testing
2. Bi-directional Load Testing
3. Dynamic Load Testing
4. StatNamic Load Testing
5. StatRapid Load Testing

All can be performed onshore as well as offshore.

RLT Statrapid Rostock
PDA Westermeerwind

PDA / PDM Pile Driving Monitoring

Foundation piles have been installed well since… well, Always! That implies Quality Assurance requires measuring during driving PDM or PDA (Pile Driving Monitoring or Pile Driving Analysis) to check the installation process e.g. pile stresses, blow counts and hammer performance. Both for impact hammers as vibratory hammers (VDM, Vibratory Driving Monitoring VDA Vibratory Driving Analysis).
After driving, the bearing capacity will increase in time (set-up). By measuring during a redrive, the static pile/soil behaviour and accordingly its static bearing capacity can be obtained by AllWave-DLT Signal Matching (DLT Dynamic Load Testing).

VDM / VDA – Vibratory Driving Monitoring

When piles are installed by means of a vibratory hammer, instead of an impact hammer, comparable measurements like with a PDM can be performed.
During Vibratory Driving Monitoring all information during installation are monitored, including performance and behaviour of pile, soil and vibratory hammer. Monitoring of pile stresses in relation to fatigue of the pile material, penetration speed, hammer frequency and efficiency, and more, are part of a total quality control for piles installed with a vibratory hammer. For foundations piles and large diameter monopiles. Onshore and offshore.

VDA Piletests
SLT paal met loadcell en vijzel Allnamics

SLT – Static Load Testing

Being the basis of all test, Allnamics performs static tests, both in compression and tension. Vertical, horizonal or under any slope.
With the equipment dedicated and designed for this type of test (see Allnamics Quad), high quality readings of load and settlements can be obtained.
The SLT is especially suitable for:
– Piles with relatively small capacity
– To determine design factors for shaft and toe resistance
– To determine load-displacement behaviour
– Trouble shooting

DLT – Dynamic Load Testing

After development started somewhere mid sixties, it was in the seventies and eighties of last century, that the Dynamic Load Test has been developed as a mature testing method. At that time offshore constructions were built for exploring oil at locations with, until then, unknown soil conditions. As an alternative for the Static Load Test, the Dynamic equivalent has positioned itself in the row of pile testing methods.

Allnamics founders are pioneers in this field. It all led to a series of monitoring systems starting with the FPDS (Foundation Pile Diagnostic System) up to Allnamics’ PDR nowadays.’
The mean reason to perform Dynamic Load Test is to obtain information about the pile behaviour during (static) loading. The Dynamic equivalent is much faster and less time consuming than Static Testing.

The application of DLT (internationally also known as PDA) is especially suitable for:
– Piles with high bearing capacities, where it’s hard to mobilise enough static force to load the pile statically up to failure, i.e. offshore piles
– Prefabricated concrete piles, able to resists the high impact stresses of the DLT
– Piles with a homogeneous cross section along the shaft
– Offshore and nearshore projects

For other piles, other methods are more suitable. For instance, applying DLT to cast in situ concrete piles, bored piles or CFA’s, the high impact loads leads to (too) high impact stresses with possible damage to the pile. Reduction of the impact load to limit the stresses to the concrete strength, leads for this type of piles to a low mobilised bearing capacity. Furthermore uncertainty in cross-section and concrete quality results in reduced accuracy of the analysis. These types of piles are preferably tested by Rapid Load Testing, StatNamic or StatRapid, for which which the maximum stresses during the test are significant lower.

Flensburg
Amsteltowershotel
RLT Utrecht

RLT – StatRapid Load Testing

Allnamics can choose to perform Rapid Load Tests with two different types of testing. For test loads up to 16 MN, StatRapid will be often used. For higher loads the Statnamic test method is available. With this test method loads up to 65 MN, and, in the near future, up top 150 MN, are possible.

Do you want to know more about Statnamic testing? Contact Peter Middendorp at middendorp@allnamics.com

Bi-directional test (O-Cell)

The Bi-directional test is an alternative for the Static Load Test for bored concrete piles. Characteristic of this type of pile testing is that the load is applied somewhere halfway in the pile, instead of at the top of the pile.
By casting a device, the cell, into the concrete, somewhere halfway or near the pile toe, force and settlements at this level can be measured. The upperpart is pushed upward, being the counter force for the downward test load on the lower part. After the test, the measured results are used to construct the load-settlement graph comparable to that of a Static Load Test.
The Bi-directional test will be applied for piles with higher capacities, with significant shaft friction to mobilise enough counter force to mobilise the shaft and toe resistance of the lower part.

Sisterbars for RLT Sonate Allnamics
SIT-USB Testing Allnamics

Pile Integrity Testing (Sonic Integrity Testing)

The Sonic Integrity Test has been developed by the engineers of Allnamics, in the seventies of last century.
The test determines imperfections in concrete piles: Cracks, changes in cross sectional area, soil inclusions, voids and other imperfections.
The Pile Integrity Test or Sonic Integrity Test is the first, fast and rough, check on the quality of cast in situ piles.

Sonic Logging

Sonic Logging is performed by lowering sensors in cast in tubes. By sending a sonic signal through the concrete by the transmitter to the receiver, information about possible defects and concrete area over the cross sectional area will be obtained.
Sonic Logging is mainly used for bored piles with large diameters and diaphragm walls.

sonic-logging

PAPERS AND ARTICLES

Allnamics has made many contributions to international conferences. These publications are available via the Allnamics database. A selection can be found below:

Determination of Discontinuities in Piles by Integrity and Signal Matching Techniques

Author(s): Middendorp, P., Reiding, F.J. Year: 1988 Language: English Where: 3rd International Conference on The Application of Stress Wave Theory on Piles, Ottawa, Canada INTRODUCTION: The quality of the signals, obtained by sonic integrity testing of piles has been improved considerably with the introduction of digital signal processing. This allows the introduction of a new […]

Possibilities and limits of sonic testing of foundation piles

Mogelijkheden en limieten van het sonisch doormeten van funderingspalen. Author(s): Middendorp P., Custers G. Year: 1999 Language: Dutch Where: Innovatieforum Genootschap Grondmechanica & Funderingstechnieken INTRODUCTION: Sinds de jaren 70, heeft het sonisch doormeten, in de volksmond ook wel “Hamertje Tik” genoemd, in Nederland een grote vlucht genomen. Reden is de sterke opkomst van de in […]

Pile Integrity Testing in the Netherlands

Author(s): Middendorp, P., Schellingerhout, J. Year: 2006 Language: English Where: 10th International Conference on Piling and Deep Foundations, DFI , Amsterdam INTRODUCTION: Pile foundations are widely applied in the Netherlands because of the soft soil conditions. One of the popular pile types are cast-in-situ piles, which have to be integrity tested to get accepted. Integrity […]

Analysis of vibrations from a source at a certain depth

Analyse van trillingen ten gevolge van een bron op enige diepte Author(s): van Delft M.C.H. Year: 1995 Language: Dutch Where: Afstudeeropdracht TU-Delft INTRODUCTION: In dit verslag is een half oneindig lineair elastisch model bekeken met daarin een trillings-bron op enige diepte. De verplaatsingen aan het oppervlak van dit model zijn berekend voor een statische situatie […]

Assessment of vibration-sensitive foundations according to the new SBR Vibration Directive Damage to buildings: 2017

Beoordeling van trillingsgevoelige funderingen volgens de nieuwe SBR Trillingsrichtlijn A Schade aan gebouwen: 2017 Author(s): Hölscher, de Lange, Snetlage, van Delft Year: 2018 Language: Dutch Where: Geotechniek Jaargang 22 Nummer 3 CONCLUSION (Dutch): Op basis van nieuwe inzichten is bij de herziening van de SBR Trillingsrichtlijn A Schade aan gebouwen:2017 is het onderdeel schade aan […]

The Vibration Measurement Market is on the move

De Trillingsmeetmarkt is in beweging Author(s): M.C.H. van Delft, C. Ostendorf Year: 2018 Language: Dutch Where: Geotechniek Nr 4, Jaargang 22 CONCLUSION: In Nederland zijn er inmiddels vele trillingsmeetsystemen beschikbaar. De keuze voor een meetsysteem is helemaal afhankelijk van de gevraagde toepassing en het aanwezige kennisniveau van de gebruikers. Belangrijke keuzen zijn: Alleen SBR A […]

Prediction and Monitoring of Installation of Offshore Foundation Monopiles for Windfarms

Author(s): Van Dorp, Moscoso, Bielefeld, Verbeek Year: 2019 Language: English Where: Offshore Technology Conference Houston, Texas, USA INTRODUCTION: Upon recently, most offshore foundations were based on a number of driven piles that were installed with an impact hammer. With the increase in offshore windfarms two major developments have occurred: the shift from jackets to monopiles, […]

The influence of stress wave phenomena during Statnamic Load Testing

Author(s): Middendorp, Bielefeld Year: 1995 Language: English Where: First International Statnamic Seminar, Vancouver INTRODUCTION: The Unloading Point Method (UPM) has become a standard tool for the analysis of Statnamic (STN) load testing signals. The method is based on the assumption that the pile can be modelled as a concentrated mass and springs. Modelling is only […]

Pile Foundation design philosophy and testing program for a new generation diesel fuel plant

Author(s): Romano, M.C., Middendorp, P, Doornbos, S. Year: 2010 Language: English Where: DFI Conference, Geotechnical Challenges in Urban Regeneration, London, UK INTRODUCTION: The company NESTE-OIL is building a plant for the production of a new generation NExBTL diesel fuel in the Port of Rotterdam The Netherlands. The fuel is produced from renewable vegetable oil as […]

Keynote lecture: Statnamic the engineering of art.

Author(s): Middendorp. P. Year: 2000 Language: English Where: International Conference on Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, Sao Paulo, Brazil CONCLUSIONS: The success of Statnamic stems for a significant part from the concepts and ideas generated by “artist-engineers” and “engineer-artists”. According to Brandl (2000): an excellent engineer requires not only a firm theoretical knowledge […]

Rapid load field tests interpreted with the new Guideline

Author(s): Hölscher, Brassinga, van Tol, Middendorp, Revoort Year: 2009 Language: English Where: 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, Egypt CONCLUSIONS: Two instrumented driven piles are tested by both SLT and RLT. The measurements lead to the following conclusions: The SLTs show a bearing capacity of 1120 kN respectively 1150 kN. The […]

Rapid Load Testing: an updated technique towards pile testing efficiency

Rapid Load Testing: una eficiente técnica para pruebas de carga en pilotes Author’s: Moscoso N.; Bielefeld M.W.; Fernández Tadeo C. Year: 2018 Language: Spanish Where: 16 CNG – 6JLEG 2018, Azores, Portugal INTRODUCTION: The article describes the rapid load tests history from its invention 40 years ago till nowadays. As the method was being developed […]

Investigations on the axial load capacity and the driveability of foundation piles at the London Array offshore wind farm

Untersuchungen zur axialen Tragfähigkeit und zur Rammbarkeit der Gründungspfähle beim Offshore Windpark London Array Author(s): M. Hencke Year: 2013 Language: German Where: Pfahl-Symposium 2013 INTRODUCTION: Die axiale Tragfähigkeit der Gründungspfähle beim OWP LA wurde mit Hilfe der Bemes-sungsansätze zur Ermittlung von axialen Tragfähigkeiten offener Stahlohrpfähle in nicht-bindigen Böden und bindigen Böden ermittelt. Bei der Bemessung […]

Dynamic load tests Offshore insights for data acquisition and analysis

Dynamische Probebelastungen Offshore–Erkenntnisse zur Datenerfassung und Auswertung Author(s): Fischer, J., Middendorp,P, Fritsch, M. Year: 2014 Language: German Where: Messen in der Geotechnik 2014, Braunschweig, Germany INTRODUCTION: Mit dem vorliegenden Beitrag wurde gezeigt, dass der Ansatz der eingetragenen Energie in den Rammpfahl sowohl auf die ermittelten fahlwiderstände als auch auf die Vorschädigung des Pfahles einen signifikanten […]

Rapid Load Testing and Dynamic Load Testing a Comparison

Rapid‐Load‐Tests und dynamische Pfahlprobebelastungen – Ein Vergleich Author(s): Stahlmann, J. Middendorp, P., Fischer, J. Year: 2012 Language: German Where: Baugrung Tagung, Mainz, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Geotechnik INTRODUCTION: Neben der statischen und der dynamischen Pfahlprobebelastung existiert mit dem RapidLoad-Test ein weiteres Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Widerstände von Pfählen. In diesem Beitrag werden einleitend die Verfahren des […]

Evaluation of Dynamic Load Tests on bored piles

Bewertung dynamischer Probebelastungen von Bohrpfählen Author(s): Dr.-Ing. M. Herten Year: 2014 Language: German Where: FuE-Abschlussbericht INTRODUCTION: Ziel des FuE-Vorhabens war die Untersuchung des Einflusses des „human factor“ bei der Ausführung und Bewertung von dynamischen Pfahlprobebelastungen von Bohrpfählen. Hierfür wurde ohne weitere Vorgaben fünf Prüfern jeweils ein Pfahl zur Ermittlung der Grenztragfähigkeit zur Verfügung gestellt. Im […]

International Prediction Event Behaviour of Cfa, Driven and Bored Piles in Residual Soil Experimental Site

Author(s): Viana da Fonseca, Santos, A. Year: 2008 Language: English Where: ISC’2,September 2008 / 240×170 / 688 pages ISBN: 978-972-752-104-3 ISBN: 978-98995625-1. INTRODUCTION: In the north-western region of Portugal residual soils from granite are dominant. The thickness of these regional saprolitic soils may some times exhibit more than 20m, with more common values of 5 […]

The advantages and disadvantages of Dynamic Load testing and Statnamic Load Testing

Author(s): Middendorp, Ginneken, Foeken Year: 2000 Language: English Where: Sixth International Conference on the Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, Sao Paulo Abstract ABSTRACT: Pile capacity testing by high strain dynamic loading methods is widely applied because of its economy and efficiency compared to static load testing methods (SLT). Frequently applied dynamic loading methods […]

Soil investigation and negative skin friction

Grondonderzoek en negatieve kleef Author(s): A.P. Offenberg Year: 1996 Language: Dutch Where: Symposium Geo- en Funderingstechniek INTRODUCTION: Negative skin friction now a well-known and established concept in soil mechanics, about which no news can be reported. The “new” geotechnical standards do not give rise to shocking changes. This contribution therefore has nothing new to offer […]

What happens in the soil during pile-driving?

Wat gebeurt er in de grond tijdens het heien? Auteur(s): ir. G. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG Year: 1956 Language: Dutch Where: De ingenieur 68e jaargang no. 25 SUMMARY: A) A graphical method is used to determine stress and velocity in rods under dynamic loading conditions. Application to a sample of dry sand gives regions of […]

Thirty years of experience with the wave equation solution based on the method of characteristics

Auteur(s): Middendorp. P. Year: 2004 Language: English Where: Seventh International Conference on the Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, Kuala Lumpur INTRODUCTION: The method of characteristics, as an accurate solution of the wave equation, has a long history of application. This paper will describe a brief history of the method and the author’s experiences […]

StatRapid Load Tests in the 270th edition of inGEOpres

Auteur(s): Moscoso del Prado Mazza; Fernández Tadeo; Bielefeld Year: 2018 Language: Español Where: inGEOpres – oct 2018 nr 270 INTRODUCTION: Pile loading tests are carried out to verify that the piles have the capacity required to support the structure to be built. Applying a load on a pile instrumented with sensors, these tests are able […]

Static and Dynamic Load testing of steel tubular piles in chalk for the offshore wind farm Baltic 2

Probebelastungen von Stahlrohren in Kreide für den Offshore-Windpark Baltic 2 Auteur(s): MBA BSc Thomas Lahrs Dipl.-Ing.; Kurt Fredrich Year: 2013 Language: German Where: Pfahl-Symposium 2013, Braunschweig, Deutschland INTRODUCTION: Die EnBW Erneuerbare Energien GmBH, Hamburg, plant in der südlichen Ostsee die Errichtung des offshore-Windparks Baltic 2 mit 80 Anlagen der 3,6 MW-Klasse. Das Bau-feld befindet sich […]

Re-evaluation of the method to determine pile damage using the Beta Method

Auteur(s): G. Verbeek; G. Goble Year: 2012 Language: English Where: Proceedings of the IS-Kanazawa, Japan INTRODUCTION: In 1979, a paper was published by Rausche and Goble describing a method to determine damage in driven piles using the Beta Method. Over the years this method has become the standard for pile damage assessment in many parts […]

Pile foundation testing of a hurricane resistant jetty

Auteur(s): Middendorp, P., Plooy, P.J., Kruit,D.B Year: 2008 Language: English Where: 8th Int. Conf. Application of stress-wave theory to piles, Lisbon INTRODUCTION: To prevent pile driving problems during the construction of a jetty at Grenada a proof testing approach was applied whereby test pile driving was performed at several places where the jetty was to […]

At the cutting edge of pile driving and pile testing

Autor(s): Middendorp, P., Verbeek, G. Year: 2012 Language: English Where: 9th International Conference on Testing and Design methods for Deep Foundations; Kanasawa, Japan INTRODUCTION: The worldwide challenges to achieve a greener planet, better communications, cost effective and fast means of transportation, and the protection against natural hazards (such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and hurricanes) continually […]

Tailor made solutions for the realization of pile load tests under water

Maßgeschneiderte Lösungen zur Realisierung von Pfahlprobebelastungen unter Wasser Auteur(s): Merzenich, Benecke, Fischer Year: 2015 Language: German Where: Pfahlsymposium INTRODUCTION: Der spanische Energiekonzern Iberdrola ist derzeit in der Planungsphase des Offshore-Windparks (OWP) Wikinger in der Deutschen Ostsee. In Wassertiefen von ca. 40 m sollen 70 Windturbinen über Jackets und Pfähle fest im Meeresboden verankert werden. Zur […]

Modeling and Observations of Pile Installation using Vibro Hammers in Fraser River Delta soils

Autor(s): David Tara, Peter Middendorp, Gerald Verbeek Year: 2014 Language: English Where: Modeling and Observations of Pile Installation using Vibro Hammers in Fraser River Delta soils INTRODUCTION: There has been significant recent interest in the use of vibratory drivers/vibro hammers to install piles in offshore and nearshore applications around the globe. Recent experience using vibratory […]

Pile Driving Analysis & Vibro Hammers A Viable Combination

Autor(s): Verbeek G.;Middendorp P.; van Dorp R.; Tara D. Year: 2013 Language: English Where: Presentation SuperPile 2013, Minneapolis, MN INTRODUCTION: Presentation held at the SuperPile 2013 conference in Minneapolis, MN DOWNLOAD: You can download the entire article here, after entering your name and e-mail address. .

Installation of Monopiles by Vibrohammers for the Riffgat Project

Autor(s): L. de Neef, P. Middendorp, J. Bakker Year: 2013 Language: English Where: Pfahlsymposium, Braunschweig INTRODUCTION: The successful installation of 22m diameter steel tubular piles/caissons by vibratory hammers in China in 2011 resulted in a strong interest in the application of vibratory hammers to install steel tubular monopiles for wind turbines, especially offshore. The first […]

Skin friction models for sand from static and dynamic laboratory load tests

Auteur(s): Middendorp,P., van Brederode, P.J. Year: 1984 Language: English Where: 2nd International Conference on Stress Waves, The Hague, Netherlands Proceedings INTRODUCTION: The behaviour of a foundation pile during impact loading can be measured or it may be simulated by computerized calculation. Although today measuring techniques and computer algorithms have reached high levels of accuracy, the […]

A digital approach to sonic pile testing

Auteur(s): Reiding, F.J., Middendorp, P., P.J. van Brederode Year: 1984 Language: English Where: 2nd International Conference on Stress Waves, The Hague, Netherlands Proceedings INTRODUCTION: Paper regarding digitizing of SIT measurements. DOWNLOAD: You can download the entire article here, after entering your name and e-mail address .

Hydroblok and Improved Pile Driving Analysis

Auteur(s): Voitus van Hamme, G.E.J.S.L. Jansz, J.W. Bomer H.,and Arentsen, D. Year: 1974 Language: English Where: De Ingenieur Vol. 86, no. 8 INTRODUCTION: In a previous article, a description of a number of features of the Hydroblock has been given, in particular, the properties of the hydroblock have been compared with those of other types […]

Rapid Pile Load Testing in Barcelona

Pruebas de carga rápida de pilotes en Barcelona Auteur(s): Moscoso del Prado Mazza; Fernández Tadeo; Bielefeld; Year: 2018 Language: Español Where: Obras Urbanas sept – oct 2018 nr 71 INTRODUCTION: The first Rapid Load Tests in Spain were conducted in 2017 in the port of Barcelona. This modern method, standardized worldwide, is a step forward […]

Recent advances of rapid load testing in Asia and Europe

Autor(s): Chew, S.H.; Middendorp, P.; Bakker J.; Chua G. Year: 2015 Language: English Where: Procedings XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Edinburgh, Scotland INTRODUCTION: Rapid Load Testing (RLT), by which a quasi-static load is applied to a foundation pile, is used increas- ingly as an alternative to static load testing (SLT) and […]

StatRapid, a new development for rapid load testing

StatRapid, eine Neuentwicklung für Rapid-Load-Testing Autor(s): P. Middendorp, L. de Neef, R. van Dorp, A. Lambo Year: 2013 Language: German Where: Pfahlsymposium Braunschweig Einführung: In der Vergangenheit reifte die Erkenntnis, dass die Ermittlung der Widerstände von Pfählen mit dynamischen Probebelastungen (DLT) in Kombination mit Signalanpassungstechniken wie CAPWAP, TNOWAVE und AllWave-DLT eine breite Streuung der Ergebnisse […]

On the operation of a diesel hammer

Autor(s): Voitus van Hamme Year: 1981 Language: Dutch Where: Technical University Delft, The Netherlands INTRODUCTION: This Dutch thesis with English summary describes the operation of the diesel hammer and the theory of pile driving. Field measurements are also shown and analyzed. The process of the diesel block is divided into 8 phases: 1. fall and […]

From very small to gigantic piles

Autor(s): Middendorp P.; van Dorp R.F. Year: 2012 Language: Dutch Where: Geotechniek Funderingsdag 2012 special INTRODUCTION: The theme Foundations in Motion has been the practice for Allnamics in the short period of its existence since 2010, both literally and figuratively, for several national and international projects in the field of Mini- to Giga-piles. It is […]

Renovation of pile foundations for homes in Zaanstad

Om en om renovatie van paalwoningen voor woningen in Zaanstad Autor(s): Ad Offenberg Year: 1981 Language: Dutch Where: Polytechnisch tijdschrift, editie bouwkunde, wegen en waterbouw INTRODUCTION: In this (dutch) article a description is given of the way how a wooden pile foundation was completed with concrete piles at a renovation in Zaandam the Netherlands. Because […]

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